Enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalysts. Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products.
The biological processes that happen inside all living organisms are chemical reactions, and most are controlled by enzymes. Without enzymes, many of these reactions would not take place at a tangible rate. Enzymes catalyze all features of cell metabolism. This covers the digestion of food, in which large nutrient molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. The conservation and transformation of chemical energy and the development of cellular macromolecules from smaller ancestors. Many acquired human diseases, such as albinism and phenylketonuria, result from a lack of a particular enzyme.
A coenzyme is an organic non-protein compound that binds with an enzyme to catalyze a reaction. Coenzymes are often broadly called cofactors, but they are chemically distinct. A coenzyme cannot function singly but can be reused numerous times when matched with an enzyme.
Functions of Coenzymes:
An enzyme without a coenzyme is called an apoenzyme. Without coenzymes or cofactors, enzymes cannot catalyze reactions effectively. In fact, the enzyme may not function at all. If reactions cannot occur at the normal catalyzed rate, then an organism will have difficulty sustaining life.
When an enzyme gains a coenzyme, it then becomes a holoenzyme or active enzyme. Active enzymes change substrates into the products an organism needs to carry out essential functions, whether chemical or physiological. Coenzymes, like enzymes, can be reused and recycled without changing reaction rate or effectiveness. They attach to a portion of the active site on an enzyme, which enables the catalyzed reaction to occur. When an enzyme is denatured by extreme temperature or pH, the coenzyme can no longer attach to the active site.
A metabolic pathway may be a group of chemical reactions during a cell that produces and breakdown molecules for cellular processes. Catabolic pathways break down molecules and produce energy. Because most metabolic reactions happen non-immediately, proteins called enzymes help promote those chemical reactions.
The processes of building and breaking down carbohydrate molecules illustrate two sorts of metabolic pathways. A metabolic pathway may be a step-by-step order of interconnected biochemical reactions that change a substrate molecule or molecules through a series of metabolic intermediates, ultimately yielding a final product or products. for instance, one metabolic pathway for carbohydrates splits large molecules down into glucose. Another metabolic pathway might build glucose into large carbohydrate molecules for storage. the primary of those processes need energy and is named anabolic.