Catalytic materials are the solids that enable the response to happen efficiently and cost-effectively. Oxides, diverse and composite oxides and salts, halides, sulfides, carbides, and unsupported and supported metals are all considered. Catalytic materials survive in several forms and can be implemented using various methods including different schemes and protocols. They can even be applied in many fields, like environmental and sustainable catalysis, biomass valorization, renewable fuels production, CO2 recycling, synthetic chemistry, gas storage/capture, drug delivery, catalysis, photocatalysis, chemical sensing, and so on. Important heterogeneous catalysts include zeolites, alumina, higher-order oxides, graphitic carbon, transition metal oxides, metals such as Raney nickel for hydrogenation, and vanadium oxide for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide.