Anthropogenic activities like greenhouse gas emission, land use change and deforestation alter the dynamics of atmosphere. Ecological life in the marine environment depends on the balance between atmosphere and ocean; so, variations in the climate cause changes in the chemical and biological equilibrium of oceans. Sea surface warming, ocean acidification, alterations in nutrient cycles and available nutrients influence the picoplankton dynamics. Some functional groups like cyanobacteria may become beneficial; while, some others like calcifies may negatively impacted. Eventually, marine microorganisms will adapt to the new control mechanisms of changing world. Therefore, predicting the future responses of picoplankton to the climate change will help marine biologist to understand the marine dynamics. This study was aimed evaluate the picoplankton responses to the impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean Sea.