Title : Increase of heat and mass transfer, separation and energy efficiency of processes in the apparatuses of the petrochemical complex
The objects of research are industrial heat and mass transfer installations, devices for cleaning gases (vapors) and liquids off the dispersed phase, and harmful impurities for solving problems of energy conservation, environmental protection, improving the quality of products and productivity. Methods for solving the problems posed consist in the mathematical description of the phenomena of transfer of momentum, mass, and energy at various hierarchical levels, taking into account spatial-temporal scales (bubble, packing element, liquid film, packed bed, bubble tray, heat, and mass transfer apparatus, industrial installation). The interaction between these levels, as a rule, is weak and this makes it possible to take into account the interactions in mathematical models parametrically. To model the phenomena, special cases of fundamental laws of conservation and thermodynamic equilibrium are used, namely, systems of differential equations of motion and heat and mass transfer, models of flow structure, boundary layer models, models of turbulent migration of fine particles in gases and liquids. To select energy-saving scientific and technical solutions, at the scale of the packed bed and bubble tray, energy coefficients and complexes, as well as their modifications, are used. At the level of the scale of the heat engineering scheme (industrial installation), the thermodynamic method of analysis with the calculation of thermal and exergy coefficients of efficiency is used. In addition, software packages (ChemCad, etc.) are used for the calculation of heat engineering schemes. Modeling methods are based on the use of mathematical consequences of the fundamental laws of conservation of momentum, mass, and energy, together with the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, systems of transfer equations (models of the structure of flows) are used for calculating the fields of concentrations and temperatures in two-phase media. Accounting for the second (dispersed)phase is carried out by means of local interphase sources and coefficients of turbulent exchange. To determine the kinetic characteristics of the transfer of momentum, mass, and heat, various models of the boundary layer and the determination of the parameters of these models taking into account various perturbations, based on the conservatism of the laws of friction and heat transfer to disturbances using the hydraulic resistance of contact devices are used. Application of the theory of turbulent migration of a finely dispersed phase in gases and liquids and models of the flow structure to calculate the separation efficiency of inhomogeneous media in devices of various designs are used.